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June 7, 2015
IPEN at ISBNPA in Edinburgh, Scotland. June 1-6.
Edinburgh welcomed us with perfect Scottish weather, which means it was cold, windy, and/or raining almost all the time. The Scottish people were much warmer. Edinburgh itself is a pleasure to walk around, in part because the Old Town and New Town provide such different experiences. The week started with two days of IPEN meetings at the University of Edinburgh. Many thanks to Prof Nanette Mutrie for arranging a high-tech meeting room for our meetings.
One of many charming sections of Old Town in Edinburgh.
IPEN Adult Writing Retreat
About a dozen investigators attended the IPEN Adult Writing Retreat on June 1. Several papers have been accepted this year, including Ilse de Bourdeaudhuij’s paper on perceived environment and BMI that was published in IJBNPA this week and received extensive media coverage around Belgium. However, our focus at the retreat was on future papers. Lead authors gave updates on their papers, plans for next steps were made, subgroup meetings were held, and several authors accomplished some writing. We had an extensive discussion about the approach we will take to papers that include both objective and perceived measures of environments. We developed a coherent plan to use the unique IPEN data to answer a variety of questions, and both new and revised paper proposals will be coming in the next few weeks. This was another productive writing retreat, and I thank everyone for their contributions and thoughtful discussion.
IPEN Adolescent Investigator Meeting
We had a much larger group for the June 2 IPEN Adolescent meeting. It was amazing to see our investigators from 11 countries who made the commitment to travel from near and far to be at this meeting. It is incredible to think about the diversity of the world represented by our investigators from Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Czech Republic (large team), China/Hong Kong, Denmark, India, New Zealand, Spain, Taiwan, and USA. Technology allowed investigators from the UCSD Coordinating Center, Urban Design for Health, and Portugal to participate. I wish our colleagues in Bangladesh, Israel, Malaysia, and Nigeria could have been with us, but they are making good progress in their studies.
Each country gave updates on the status of their studies, and there was a wide range, from just starting data collection to completing it and working on the GIS variable creation. It is now clear that neighborhood selection methods vary considerably. We will describe in the Methods paper the various ways countries are implementing the principle of enhancing variability of environments and SES.
Several challenges were identified and discussed. Perhaps the most common issue was the difficulty of obtaining complete parent surveys. However, several countries offered effective strategies, such as having the parents complete the survey at the same time they sign the consent form. I encourage each country to make an additional effort to obtain high completion rates of the parent surveys, because they are the source of the perceived environment (NEWS-Youth) measures that are central to our analyses. In most cases, collection of adolescent survey, accelerometer, and GPS data are going reasonably well. I personally appreciate everyone’s efforts and commitment to following the common protocol as much as possible.
Marc Adams, Larry Frank, and Jim Chapman led a useful session on GIS methods. Marc explained the templates and important new approaches for IPEN Adolescent, including use of the Qualtrics online system for completing templates. Larry presented results of final analyses comparing various GIS buffer methods, and a manuscript is in progress. Many thanks to the GIS experts from 4 countries who conducted many additional analyses, and to the UD4H team for conducting analyses. Larry also presented on the “new” regional accessibility variable.
Thanks to investigators in 5 countries and analyses by Carrie Geremia, Kelli Cain, and Terry Conway, we had inter-observer reliability data for MAPS-Global conducted in person. The results are very encouraging. We will have further discussion about the papers coming from these data. Investigators from the majority of countries are planning to collect MAPS Global data. We had a discussion of options for mapping the routes and collecting data for the main study. Investigators will have another chance to provide input on final variables for the instrument and the construction of scales.
The same day as our discussion of MAPS Global assessed by StreetView, I ran across this Google car updating Streetview images in Edinburgh.
Carrie Geremia has been working hard to develop a park audit strategy for IPEN Adolescent, and she returned from maternity leave just in time to prepare a presentation for this meeting. She identified overlapping items from the POST and EAPRS instruments and showed the “joint” scale had good validity based on correlations with park use and PA in parks. There was interest in using Kaczynski’s Park Audit Tool, so we will compare the overlapping items with the other two instruments. Billie Giles-Corti sent around papers that described collection of POST data using Google Earth, so we will consider this option.
A couple of investigators are measuring school environments. These methods were not discussed but deserve further attention. We will ask for all school environment protocols and share with everyone. We will try to identify a common method and encourage assessment of school environments when possible.
Ilse de Bourdeaudhuij began the segment on publications by describing the Publication Committee and our procedures for submitting paper proposals, identifying writing groups and authors, and ensuring quality of the papers. These methods have worked well for IPEN Adult, because all submitted papers have been published in high quality journals so far. Assignments for lead authors were noted, and nominations for writing groups were made. Based on the IPEN Adult discussion the previous day, we will have further conversation about using perceived and objective environment measures in the same analyses. Looking forward to publications was a good way to end the IPEN Adolescent investigator meeting.
Participants at the IPEN Adolescent investigator meeting in Edinburgh. June 2, 2015
ISBNPA: International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Ester Cerin’s IPEN Adult symposium had the honor of being listed as the first symposium at ISBNPA. A sizeable audience came to hear 4 data-packed papers presented by Ilse (substituting for Delfien van Dyck who is on maternity leave), Ester, Neville Owen, and myself. Stay tuned for the papers coming from these presentations.
Presenters in Ester’s IPEN Adult symposium at ISBNPA: Jim Sallis, Rodrigo Reis, Ilse de Bourdeaudhuij, Ester Cerin, Neville Owen.
The ISBNPA conference had many environment-focused sessions, with many contributions by IPEN investigators. Here are a few of my IPEN-related observations. I was surprised to see a paper on built environment (PANES/E-module), PA (IPAQ), and obesity from Saudi Arabia. This is an encouraging sign from a region that has built activity-UNfriendly environments and is suffering from high rates of obesity and chronic diseases. Deepti Adlahka, from Washington University in St Louis, presented promising reliability and validity results on NEWS-India, which is her dissertation project. I was impressed by the substantial numbers of natural experiments of change in PA environments. The studies came from several countries. Though the findings were not always as expected, in general these quasi-experimental studies advance the quality of evidence about the role of environments in PA.
IPEN Meeting 2016?
Based on an informal poll of participants, the next IPEN investigator meetings will likely be at ICPAPH (International Congress of Physical Activity and Public Health) in Bangkok, Thailand in November 2016. The theme of the meeting is “Active People, Active Places, Active Policies,” and I am pleased to be on the scientific committee which is planning a program with several innovative features. Please plan to attend if you can.
I want to end with huge thanks to Kelli Cain, Carrie Geremia, Terry Conway, Marc Adams, Larry Frank, and Jim Chapman for preparing presentations and other materials for our fruitful two days of IPEN meetings and team building in Edinburgh.
So long, Edinburgh. On to the next meeting.
A typical scene on the Royal Mile in Old Town, Edinburgh.
2015 Publications List As of June 2015
James F. Sallis, Ph.D.
Van Dyck, D., Cerin, E., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Hinckson, E., Reis, R.S., Davey, R., Sarmiento, O.L., Mitáš, J., Troelsen, J., Macfarlane, D., Salvo, D., Aguinaga-Ontoso, I., Owen, N., Cain, K.L., and Sallis, J.F. (2015). International study of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with body mass index and obesity: IPEN Adult study. International Journal of Obesity, 39, 199-207.
Gebel, K., Ding, D., Foster, C., Bauman, A.E., and Sallis, J.F. (2015). Improving current practice in reviews of the built environment and physical activity. Sports Medicine, 45(3), 297-302.
Sallis, J.F., Spoon, C., Cavill, N., Engelberg, J., Gebel, K., Lou, D., Parker, M., Thornton, C.M., Wilson, A.L., Cutter, C., and Ding, D. (2015). Co-benefits of designing communities for active living: An exploration of literature. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12: 30. DOI 10.1186/s12966-015-0188-2. Link Longer report, data tables, slides: Link
Glanz, K., Sallis, J.F., and Saelens, B.E. (2015). Advances in physical activity and nutrition environment assessment tools and applications: Recommendations. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 48(5), 615-619. Link
Molina-Garcia, J., Castillo, I., Queralt, A., and Sallis, J.F. (2015). Bicycling to university: Evaluation of a bicycle-sharing program in Spain. Health Promotion International, 30(2), 350-358.
De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Van Dyck, D., Salvo, D., Davey, R., Reis, R.S., Schofield, G., Sarmiento, O.L., Mitas, J., Christiansen, L.B., Macfarlane, D., Sugiyama, T., Aguinaga-Ontoso, I., Owen, N., Conway, T.L., Sallis, J.F., and Cerin, E. (2015). International study of perceived neighbourhood environmental attributes and Body Mass Index: IPEN Adult study in 12 countries. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12: 62. Link
Papers Accepted and In Press
Couch, S.D., Glanz, K., Zhou, C., Sallis, J.F., and Saelens, B.E. (accepted). Home food environment in relation to children’s diet quality and weight status. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
Esteban-Cornejo, I., Tejero-Gonzalez, C.A., Martinez-Gomez, D., del-Campo, J., Gonzalez-Galo, A., Padilla-Modelo, C., Sallis, J.F., and Veiga, O. , on behalf of the UP & DOWN Study Group. (in press). Independent and combined influence of the components of physical fitness on academic performance in youth. Journal of Pediatrics.
Esteban-Cornejo, I., Tejero-Gonzalez, C.A., Castro-Pinero, J., Conde-Caveda, J., Cabanas-Sanchez, V., Sallis, J.F., and Veiga, O. (in press). Independent and combined influence of neonatal and current body composition on academic performance in youth: The UP & DOWN Study. Pediatric Obesity. doi: 10.1111/ijpo.239.
Giles-Corti, B., Sallis, J.F., Sugiyama, T., Frank, L.D., Lowe, M., and Owen, N. (in press). Translating active living research into policy and practice: One important pathway to chronic disease prevention. Journal of Public Health Policy. Open access. Link
Esteban-Cornejo, I., Tejero-Gonzalez, C.M., Sallis, J.F., and Veiga, O.L. (accepted). Physical activity and cognition in adolescents: A systematic review. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport.
Jakicic, J.M., Sox, H., Blair, S.N., Bensink, M., Johnson, W.G., King, A.C., Lee, I.-M., Nahum-Shani, I., Sallis, J.F., Sallis, R.E., Craft, L., Whitehead, J.R., and Ainsworth, A.E. (in press). Comparative effectiveness research: a roadmap for physical activity and healthy lifestyles. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. [Epub ahead of print: November 25, 2014]. PMID: 25426735.
Molina-Garcia, J., Queralt, A., Castillo, I., and Sallis, J.F. (accepted). Changes in physical activity domains during the transition out of high school: Psychosocial and environmental correlates. Journal of Physical Activity and Health.
Carlson, J.A., Saelens, B.E., Kerr, J., Schipperijn, J., Conway, T.L., Frank, L.D., Chapman, J.E., Glanz, K., Cain, K., and Sallis, J.F. (2015). Association between neighborhood walkability and GPS-measured walking, bicycling and vehicle time in adolescents. Health and Place, 32. Published online January 9, 2015.
Lopez Castillo, M.A., Carlson, J.A., Cain, K., Bonilla, E.A., Chuan, E., Elder, J.P., and Sallis, J.F. (accepted). Dance class structure affects youth physical activity and sedentary behavior: A study of seven dance types. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport.
Cain, K.L., Gavand, K.A., Conway, T.L., Peck, E., Bracy, N.L., Bonilla, E., Rincon, P., and Sallis, J.F. (in press). Physical activity in youth dance classes. Pediatrics. Online first, posted May 18, 2015. Link
Kneeshaw-Price, S.H., Saelens, B.E., Sallis, J.F., Frank, L.D., Grembowski, D.E., Hannon, P.A., Smith, N.L., and Chan, K.C.G. (in press). Neighborhood crime-related safety and its relation to children’s physical activity. Journal of Urban Health, 2015. Posted online March 27, 2015. Link
Kercood, S., Conway, T.L., Saelens, B.E., Frank, L.D., Cain, K.L., and Sallis, J.F. (accepted). Parent rules, barriers, and places for youth physical activity vary by neighborhood walkability and income. Children, Youth, and Environments.
Adams, M.A., Todd, M., Conway, T.L., Cain, K.L., Frank, L.D., and Sallis, J.F. (accepted). Patterns of walkability, transit and recreation environments for physical activity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Sallis, J.F., Cain, K.L., Conway, T.L., Gavand, K., Millstein, R.A., Geremia, C.M., Frank, L.D., Saelens, B.E., Glanz, K., and King, A.C. (accepted). 15-item streetscape audit suitable for use by community groups: MAPS-Mini. Preventing Chronic Disease.
Esteban-Cornejo-I., Martinez-Gomez, D., Tejero-Gonzalez, C.M., Izquierdo-Gomez, R., Carbonell-Baeza, A., Castro-Pinero, J., Sallis, J.F., and Veiga, O.L., on behalf of the UP&DOWN Study Group. (accepted). Maternal physical activity before and during the prenatal period and the offspring’s academic performance in youth. The UP&DOWN study. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine.
Kurka, J. (accepted). Patterns of neighborhood environment attributes in relation to children’s physical activity. Health & Place.
Esteban-Cornejo, I., Martinez-Gomez, D., Sallis, J.F., Cabanas-Sanchez, V., Fernandez-Santos, J., Castro-Pinero, J., and Veiga, O.L. (accepted). Objectively measured and self-reported leisure-time sedentary behavior and academic performance in youth: The UP&DOWN Study. Preventive Medicine.
Non-Peer-Reviewed Papers and Commentaries
Sallis, J.F. International innovations in physical activity promotion. A summary of my presentation, published in a Summary Report. Building a Culture of Health: Lessons Learned from Global Efforts: Case Study of Childhood Obesity. Co-sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research. February 2015. Link
Sallis, J.F. (2015). Advancing systems thinking through the Healthy Kids Healthy Communities evaluation. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 21(3, suppl), S88-S89. (invited commentary).
Carlson, J.A., and Sallis, J.F. (in press). Environment and policy interventions. In W. Zhu and N. Owen, eds. Sedentary Behavior and Health: Concepts, Assessment, and Intervention. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Sallis, J.F., and Carlson, J.A. (in press). Physical activity: Numerous benefits and effective interventions. In R.M. Kaplan, M.J. Spittel, D.H. David, eds. Emerging behavioral and social science perspectives on population health. US Government Printing Office: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2015.
The week of May 19, 2014 was a big one for IPEN. The San Diego Coordinating Center was pleased to host very many IPEN investigators at our “home office” in the Hillcrest neighborhood. Members of the IPEN family from around the world were drawn to San Diego by the ISBNPA (International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity) conference that week. We were honored that several investigators came days or even weeks early to spend time with our research group, including Jo Salmon, Erica Hinckson, Neville Owen, Jasper Schipperijn, Ferdinand Salonna, Irene Esteban, Oscar Viega, Ding Ding, and Klaus Gebel. They attended IPEN and Active Living Research staff meetings, conferred with several staff, and attended trainings organized by Jacqueline Kerr on the UCSD campus. It was the first chance for many of the investigators and IPEN staff to meet each other in person. I want to touch on some of the IPEN-related highlights of the week.
The first official pair of events was Monday’s IPEN Adult Writing Retreat and IPEN Adolescent Accelerometer Training conducted by Kelli Cain. The writing retreat was productive, and investigators worked separately and together on analysis plans, drafting papers, and writing new prospectuses. Attendees appreciated the intensive and detailed instruction on all phases of accelerometer use. We missed Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij who had to cancel her trip due to illness and death in her family. On the other hand, we had a chance to welcome new members into the IPEN family. Anna Timperio encouraged Dr. Mohan and Dr. Anjana from India to attend the IPEN meetings. They are already in touch with our other Indian colleagues Shifalika Goenke and Deepti Adlakha, so I am very hopeful that we will have an IPEN Adolescent study in India in the near future.
Monday evening, Shemi and I had the pleasure of hosting a party at our home. It was wonderful to have so many IPEN investigators and guests together in an informal atmosphere. After a tasty dinner, it got a bit loud because we brought out some percussion instruments so everyone could participate in the entertainment. Rodrigo and Lou were especially helpful in injecting some Brazilian rhythms and inspiring some dancing. Thanks to everyone who attended for making it a great evening and getting us energized for the rest of the week.
After months of planning, Tuesday’s IPEN Adolescent meeting more than met our goals. Our conference room was high-density throughout the day. I believe we had investigators from 12 countries present, which generated great energy. We started with updates from every country, and it was impressive to see the commitment, methodological rigor, and creativity being devoted to the studies. The agenda covered everything from GIS templates and sausage buffers to MAPS-Global and publication plans. It was an intensive day, but I trust everyone found it rewarding. I was especially pleased that the whole Coordinating Center staff was able to make personal connections with the investigators.
ISBNPA started on Wednesday with over 800 attendees. Deanna Hoelscher organized an outstanding conference. I found the opening keynote by Simon Barquera to be particularly memorable because he described several policy successes that Mexico has achieved in recent years, such as a soda tax and school food reforms, despite food industry opposition. It gave me and others hope that healthier policies can be adopted and implemented in other countries. There were many great sessions at ISBNPA, but I want to focus on two notable symposia relevant to IPEN. Erica Hinckson led a symposium on Friday on IPEN-Child that included results from built environment and physical activity studies conducted with children in several countries. Erica described her efforts to develop a collaborative IPEN-Child study that may pool data from existing studies. Please contact Erica for more information.
My personal favorite event at ISBNPA was the Saturday morning symposium organized by Delfien Van Dyck. This session was a landmark for IPEN Adult because it was the first presentation of pooled analysis results. Lead authors were Delfien Van Dyck, Ester Cerin, Jacqueline Kerr, and Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij (which I presented in her absence). Three of the papers dealt with perceived environments and various physical activity and BMI outcomes. I found the results to be strong and informative, and they validated the vision of IPEN. In my role as discussant I mentioned how it has taken us 10 years to progress from the announcement of IPEN in Mainz, Germany to the first symposium of pooled results. I showed a preview of GIS data across the 17 IPEN Adult cities that demonstrated extraordinary variation in walkability. Analyses of the GIS data will be starting very soon. I believe the IPEN Adult study will live up to its promise, thanks to the years of hard work of talented investigators around the world and the Coordinating Center staff. Thanks to all, and the best is yet to come.
I was able to attend a small meeting early Saturday morning in which the leaders of several scientific organizations discussed how they could coordinate their efforts to improve the translation of physical activity and nutrition research into policy. This is the right agenda to be discussing, and I hope you will see some concrete actions coming in the next year from ISBNPA, International Society for Physical Activity and Health, Society of Behavioral Medicine, and other related groups. I commend the leaders for coming together for this noble purpose, which is certainly consistent with the goals of IPEN.
After a marathon week of meetings, interactions, and intellectual stimulation, it was time to get the body moving. Some of us organized a bicycle ride around Pacific Beach and Mission Beach on Monday May 26, which was the Memorial Day holiday.
Here are myself, Irene Esteban, Ferdinand Salonna, Javier Molina, Ana Queralt, and Oscar Viega enjoying a bike ride by the beach on Memorial Day.
Updated June 8, 2015.
Sallis, J.F., Cutter, C.L., Lou, D., Spoon, C., Wilson, A.L., Ding, D., Ponkshe, P., Cervero, R. Patrick, K., Schmid, T.L., Mignano, A., and Orleans, C.T. (2014). Active Living Research: Creating and using evidence to support childhood obesity prevention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 46(2), 195-207. Open access. Link
Accompanied by evaluation of ALR-2 that is available through open access here.
Carlson, J.A., Mignano, A.M., Norman, G.J., McKenzie, T.L., Kerr, J., Arredondo, E.M., Madanat, H., Cain, K.L., Elder, J.P., Saelens, B.E., and Sallis, J.F. (2014). Socioeconomic disparities in elementary school practices and children’s physical activity during school. American Journal of Health Promotion, 28(3 suppl.), S47-S53. DOI: 10.4278/ajhp.130430-QUAN-206
Marques, A., Sallis, J.F., Martins, J., Diniz, J., and Carreiro da Costa, F. Correlates of urban children’s leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviours during school days. American Journal of Human Biology. Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014. DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22535. Link
Bracy, N.L., Millstein, R.A., Carlson, J.A., Conway, T.L., Sallis, J.F., Saelens, B.E., Kerr, J., Cain, K.L., Frank, L.D., and King, A.C. (2014). Is the relationship between the built environment and physical activity moderated by perceptions of crime and safety? International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11:24. DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-11-24. Link
Molina-Garcia, J., Sallis, J.F., and Castillo, I. (2014). Active commuting and sociodemographic factors among university students in Spain. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 11, 359-363.
Sugiyama, T., Cerin, E., Owen, N., Oyeyemi, A.L., Conway, T.L., Van Dyck, D., Schipperijn, J., Macfarlane, D.J., Salvo, D., Reis, R.S., Mitáš, J., Sarmiento, O.L., Davey, R., Schofield, G., Orzanco-Garralda, R., and Sallis, J.F. (2014). Perceived neighborhood environment attributes associated with adults’ recreational walking: IPEN Adult study in 12 countries. Health and Place, 28, 22-30.
Molina-Garcia, J., Sallis, J.F., and Castillo, I. (2014). Active commuting and sociodemographic factors among university students in Spain. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 11, 359-363.
Ding, D., Sallis, J.F., Norman, G.J., Frank, L.D., Saelens, B.E., Kerr, J., Conway, T.L., Cain, K., Hovell, M.F., Hofstetter, C.R., and King, A.C. (2014). Neighborhood environment and physical activity among older adults: Do the relationships differ by driving status? Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 22, 421-431.
Cain, K.L., Millstein, R.A., Sallis, J.F., Conway, T.L., Gavand, K., Frank, L.D., Saelens, B.E., Geremia, C.M., Chapman, J., Adams, M.A., Glanz, K., and King, A.C. (2014). Contribution of streetscape audits to explanation of physical activity in four age groups based on the microscale audit of pedestrian streetscapes (MAPS). Social Science and Medicine, 116, 82-92. Available online 24 June 2014, ISSN 0277-9536. Link
Van Dyck, D., Cerin, E., Conway, T.L., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Owen, N., Kerr, J., Cardon, G., and Sallis, J.F. (2014). Interacting psychosocial and environmental correlates of leisure-time physical activity: A three-country study. Health Psychology, 33(7), 699-709. Online First Publication, November 18, 2013. doi: 10.1037/a0033516
Carlson, J.A., Bracy, N.L., Sallis, J.F., Millstein, R.A., Kerr, J., Saelens, B.E., Kerr, J., Conway, T.L., Frank, L.D., Cain, K.L., and King, A. (2014). Sociodemographic moderators of relations of neighborhood safety to physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports & Exercise, 46(8), 1554-1564.
Tandon, P.J., Grow, H.M., Couch, S.C., Glanz, K., Sallis, J.F., Frank, L.D., and Saelens, B.E. (2014). Physical and social home environment in relation to children’s overall and home-based physical activity and sedentary time. Preventive Medicine, 66, 39-44.
Esteban-Cornejo, I., Tejero-González, C.M., Martinez-Gomez, D., Cabanas-Sánchez, V., Fernández-Santos, J.R., Conde-Caveda, J., Sallis, J.F., and Veiga, O.L.; UP & DOWN Study Group. (2014). Objectively measured physical activity has a negative but weak association with academic performance in children and adolescents. Acta Paediatrica, 103, e501–e506.
Adams, M.A., Frank, L.D., Schipperijn, J., Smith, G., Chapman, J., Christiansen, L.B., Coffee, N., Salvo, D., du Toit, L., Jan Dygrýn, J., Hino, A.A.F., Lai, P-C., Mavoa, S., Pinzón, J.D., Van de Weghe, N., Cerin, E., Davey, R., Macfarlane, D., Owen, N., and Sallis, J.F. (2014). International variation in neighborhood walkability, transit, and recreation environments using Geographic Information Systems: The IPEN Adult Study. International Journal of Health Geographics, 13:43. doi: 10.1186/1476-072X-13-43. Link
Carlson, J.A., Sallis, J.F., Kerr, J., Conway, T.L., Cain, K., Frank, L.D., and Saelens, B.E. (2014). Built environment characteristics and parent active transportation are associated with active travel to school in youth age 12-15. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48, 1634-1639.
Cerin, E., Cain, K.L., Conway, T.L., Van Dyck, D., Hinckson, E., Schipperijn, J., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Owen, N., Davey, R.C., Hino, A.A.F., Mitáš, J., Orzanco-Garralda, R., Salvo, D., Sarmiento, O.L., Christiansen, L.B., Macfarlane, D., Schofield, G., and Sallis, J.F. (2014). Neighborhood environments and objectively measured physical activity in 11 countries. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 46(12), 2253-2264. Published online April 28, 2014. PubMed PMID: 24781892.
Engelberg, J.K., Carlson, J.A., Black, M.L., Ryan, S., and Sallis, J.F. (2014). Ciclovia participation in San Diego, CA: The first CicloSDias. Preventive Medicine, 69 (suppl.), S66-S73.
Cleland, C.L., Hunter, R.F., Kee, F., Cupples, M.E., Sallis, J.F., and Tully, M.A. (2014). Validity of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in assessing levels and change in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behaviour in Northern Ireland. BMC Public Health, 14:1255 (released online December 10, 2014). Link
Non-Peer-Reviewed Papers and Commentaries
Sallis, J.F. Increasing activity, fitness worth the effort. One of several commentaries on “How to get California kids physically fit?” California Healthcare Foundation online Think Tank. Posted December 4, 2013. Link
Economos, C.D., Sallis, J.F., Keith, N.R., and Newkirk, J. (2014). The Active Living Research 2013 Conference: Achieving change across sectors: Integrating research, policy, and practice. American Journal of Health Promotion, 28(3 suppl), S1-S4. doi: Link
My presentation on building physical and social environments for physical activity in high-risk communities was summarized in: Breiner, H., Parker, L., & Olson, S. (rapporteurs) (2014). Creating equal opportunities for a healthy weight: Workshop summary. National Academies Press: Washington, DC, pages 15-16.
Pollack, K.M., Gonzalez, E.R., Hager, E.R., and Sallis, J.F. (2014). The Active Living Research 2014 Conference: “Niche to norm”. Preventive Medicine, 69 (suppl.), S1-S4. (Guest Editor commentary).
ICPAPH, the International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health, was held in the beautiful city of Rio de Janeiro. This is an important conference for IPEN, because the attendees came from 70 countries, and IPEN supports the Council on the Environment and Physical Activity (CEPA), an official council of the ISPAH. I want to start by congratulating the organizers on a superb scientific meeting with a very successful social program. Special thanks to Pedro Hallal, Rodrigo Reis, and the program committee for ensuring the scientific quality of the meeting.
We had several CEPA sessions that were well-attended and of high quality. I congratulate Takemi Sugiyama, outgoing chair of CEPA, for organizing three excellent sessions. The CEPA symposium was packed with new data and convincing demonstrations that CEPA is moving the field forward. After my brief overview of IPEN, Jens Troelsen presented new IPEN Adult data from Denmark, and Erica Hinckson presented IPEN Adolescent data from New Zealand. Leaders of working groups presented very encouraging progress on almost all of them, and I believe attendees realized they could get involved in substantive international collaborations through CEPA. Billie Giles-Corti presented 10 specific strategies for conducting policy-relevant environment research, which are detailed in a paper developed by the Policy Working Group that is currently under review. This will be a useful guide for IPEN investigators and the broader field. Akira Hino presented strong ongoing collaborations among Latin American investigators. Jasper Schipperijn and Hayley Christian reported on review papers and other projects that have resulted from the Urban Green Spaces Working Group. Jelle Van Cauwenberg presented a review on environments and older adults’ physical activity, which has been published in IJBNPA. Adewale Oyeyemi described how the Africa Working Group is making excellent progress developing a version of the NEWS instrument for Africa. (NEWS-Africa was the subject of an earlier blog).
The CEPA symposium was a good introduction to the CEPA meetings over the next two days. In the first meeting, it was agreed that Rodrigo Reis will be the new CEPA Chair, and the new leaders are listed below. All existing groups will continue working, and there were suggestions for a new working group on social issues (such as safety and culture). One particular advancement was that the Early Career Working Group will be expanded to become a function of the entire ISPAH. This working group was seen as a good model to fill an important need, so new ISPAH President Fiona Bull volunteered to work with CEPA to accomplish this expansion. The first meeting ended with discussions among working groups as they made realistic actions plans to be accomplished over the next two years. The IPEN Coordinating Center will continue to support the working groups.
CEPA Leadership 2014-2016
Chair: Rodrigo Reis
Co-chairs: Jacqueline Kerr, Erica Hinckson
Working group coordinator: Deborah Salvo
Communications officer: Akira Hino
The second CEPA meeting was devoted to the Early Career Working Group. The lunchtime meeting was heavily attended and was designed for senior investigators to respond to the stated needs and questions of early career researchers. Both large-group discussion and small-group consultations were held. Many thanks to Neville Owen, Billie Giles-Corti, Jo Salmon, and Ulf Ekelund who offered their guidance. My assessment is that CEPA is performing useful functions for the environment and physical activity field, so we will start planning for CEPA activities in Bangkok, Thailand in 2016.
CEPA meeting with Early Career Researchers, with Neville Owen providing guidance.
CEPA meeting with Early Career Researchers, with Billie Giles-Corti mentoring in a small group session.
There were two notable advances for IPEN that came to my attention at the Rio meeting. First, I learned that an IPEN Adult study is being conducted in Chile, led by Jaime Leppe Zamora. The funds are already available, and the Latin American survey will be adopted. This was wonderful news, and this new study was largely due to support from the Latin American IPEN investigators. Second, I met Shifalika Goenka, who is a physician in India with a well developed interest in built environments and physical activity. She has written a book under the auspices of the regional WHO office that advocates for healthy environments and policies. She is very interested in pursuing an IPEN Adolescent study in India that can be included in the pooled dataset. We will work with her to identify funding for such a project. I made several other friends in Rio, but these two encounters were particularly meaningful for IPEN.
Shafilika Goenka and Jim discuss an IPEN Adolescent study in India
There were many other highlights of the meeting, and some of them are partially captured in the photos. There were abundant standing tables at the back of many meeting rooms, and they were well used. The conference banquet transformed into a samba parade and then into a disco that gave attendees a welcome opportunity to be active. Victor and Sandra Matsudo organized an Agita Mundo parade to the beach, and hundreds of participants in yellow jerseys spelled out “Agita”. After an intensive and stimulating scientific conference, I was able to spend a day touring some spectacular beaches and Sugarloaf Mountain. It was great that so many physical activity experts from around the world were able to visit Latin America for the first time. ICPAPH in Rio was a big boost for IPEN as well as international physical activity research in general.
Brazilians were early adopters of the standing tables in most meeting rooms.
Lise Gauvin celebrates the Agita Mundo parade.
Jim, Adewale Oyeyemi, and Mike Pratt during the Agita Mundo parade to the beach
The samba parade at banquet gave ICPAPH attendees a chance to apply what we learned from physical activity research
Jelle van Cauwenberg, Neville Owen, Adewale Oyeyemi, and Jim enjoy the view of Copacabana Beach from atop Sugarloaf Mountain.
A delegation of 7 colleagues from Taipei, Taiwan visited San Diego March 9-13. They were led by Jin Jong Chen from National Yang-Ming University and Kevin Chen from the Taipei Department of Health. The whole group attended the Active Living Research Conference and presented on their research and practice work. The Taipei group spent the morning of March 13 at the IPEN Coordinating Center offices, with another special guest, Ester Cerin of Deakin University in Melbourne, Australia. The meeting was attended by Kelli Cain, Carrie Geremia, Alex Mignano, and myself. Larry Frank joined by phone from Vancouver.
We learned that Taipei will be the World Design Capital (WDC) in 2016. Their winning application had the themes of ageing-friendly and healthy design for the city. WDC represents a collaboration of multiple city departments, including Health, Planning, and Parks, so there is clear relevance for active living. The Department of Health is sponsoring an IPEN study of older adults, and we discussed the progress of this study and possible next steps. The IPEN Senior protocol is being followed, using the NEWS and street audit tool adapted for Chinese Seniors by Ester Cerin as part of her studies in Hong Kong. This group may have the opportunity to evaluate the impact of intervention demonstration areas, and we discussed possible evaluation designs.
Two of the delegation were experts in computer science and information technology. Thus, they are able to design multi-level interventions that span the range from environmental changes to educational apps. On the afternoon of the March 13, the delegation met with Kevin Patrick, Jacqueline Kerr, and Nadir Weibel to discuss the integration of technology into several types of health interventions.
We appreciate that both Drs Chen are using IPEN as an important element of plans for designing a healthy city that can be a model for the world. Taipei is already a mostly activity-friendly city, so it will fascinating to learn about the enhancements they will make. I commend the Taipei group on the close collaboration between University-based researchers in several disciplines and the Department of Health. The use of research in this design effort is innovative, and we will keep IPEN members informed about this project.
An invitation to speak at the International Conference on Obesity (ICO) in Kuala Lumpur led to a whirlwind tour of 3 cities, a talk at the National Sports Institute, and several meetings with IPEN investigators. It was my first visit to Malaysia, and I learned how the rich mix of cultures makes for a vibrant experience. I was particularly impressed at how happy and friendly the Malaysian people are. However, my visit occurred a few days after the disappearance of Malaysian Air flight 370, so the unknown fate of the people on board was constantly in the news and on the minds of everyone.
ICO was at the beautiful convention center in the heart of Kuala Lumpur. A well-used park separated the convention center from Petronas Towers, dramatic buildings that once were the tallest in the world. The park had one of the largest playgrounds I have ever seen. Here is a small sample of the playground:
At the ICO, I spoke in a session on the “exposome”. I asked who knew what an exposome was and only one hand went up. I told them it was still OK to refer to “environments.” I was encouraged that the session was full, with some people standing at the back. My talk focused on the expanding literature on evaluations of environment and policy interventions. A few people tweeted about my talk and others in the session. I want to congratulate Steve Blair who received the Population Health award at the conference.
Wan Manan is leading IPEN-related studies of adults and adolescents in Malaysia. The studies are being conducted in different cities, and he has assembled an excellent team. Marc Adams, now of Arizona State University, made the trip to provide instruction and guidance on creating GIS variables. The first meeting with IPEN investigators was held at the University of Malaya, at the Faculty of Built Environment. This was a new concept to me, but it made sense to pull the disciplines together with expertise in the built environment. After the meeting we toured potential study neighborhoods, a park, and a school. Here is the IPEN group in front of the Faculty building.
We visited a high school where they were having a girls’ handball tournament after school. Handball is like soccer but using the hands.
Marc and I then flew to Penang to tour some more potential IPEN study neighborhoods. We had two able and enthusiastic tour guides, Yi Yi Lee and Shuwen, who both work on IPEN studies. They have degrees in nutrition so we had a great food tour as well. Here we are getting an overview of Penang.
After a hike through the rain forest we toured the old part of the city, which was designed to be walkable but had too much traffic. A recent signature of Penang is an explosion of mixed-media murals. The murals appear to be attracting many tourists, suggesting this is a promising approach to art for economic development that also encourages walking and biking. Several of the murals have physical activity themes, including this one.
It looked to me like Malaysia has embraced automobile dependence, and pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure was not a priority. Here is an example of the downside of lack of attention to pedestrians. Here are Marc and Yi Yi risking their lives to cross a busy road with no intersection controls to get to a major tourist destination.
Finally, we traveled to Kota Bharu, where Wan Manan is based. We met at the Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Health Sciences. The main topic again was GIS variables and neighborhood selection. It seems like each city has different GIS variables available, which is a common challenge for this type of work. But the team in Malaysia is well prepared to conduct two excellent studies. It was a treat to work with them. Here is the group meeting in Kota Bharu.
An unexpected opportunity arose to speak to the National Sports Institute in Kuala Lumpur. They recently started an Active Living program, and the Ministry of Health is looking to the Institute to provide guidance on physical activity interventions. Thus, I had a receptive audience for my talk on the need for collaborating with multiple sectors to design, implement, and evaluate multi-level interventions. We had a deep discussion with a small group afterwards about using research to inform policy change. I was pleased to learn they are evaluating a national campaign to increase physical activity and are studying the energy expenditure of traditional Malaysian games. Here is a photo of Yeo Wee Kian and Zack Ghazali who work at the Institute.
The hospitality at every stop on this trip was outstanding and humbling. I especially want to thank the organizers of ICO, Wan Manan, and Yi Yi Lee for making all the arrangements and ensuring my trip was enjoyable and stress free. It was a great introduction to a wonderful country, and I hope I have the chance to return.